Nigeria is situated in the West African region and lies between longitudes 3 degrees and 14 degrees and latitudes 4 degrees and 140 degrees. It has a land mass of 923,768 sq.km.. It is bordered to the north by the Republics of Niger and Tchad. It shares borders to the west with the Republic of Benin, while the Republic of Cameroun shares the eastern borders right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern limits of Nigerian Territory. The about 800km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of a maritime power. Land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.
Long before colonial rule, the peoples of Nigeria had established their own indigenous system of government. The various ethnic groups in Nigeria had different patterns of government. The Hausa-Fulani, Igbo and Yoruba in particular had each established political systems that were distinct.
Evidence of contact between the peoples on the northern part of Africa and Nigerians can be found in the legends of some ethnic groups. The Hausas, for example, 'have a legend which traces their ancestry to migrants from the Far-east. So also does a Yoruba legend. One can assume that as the Sahara began to desiccate, some of the groups who lived in what was changing into an inhospitable region moved out. The few who probably moved south into what became Nigeria would in turn displace those already living there, forcing the latter to repeat the process elsewhere.
Nigeria gained independence from British role on October 1, 1960. Three years later, on October 1, 1963, Nigeria became a Republic thus breaking all ties with the British Crown only to retain her status as member of the Common wealth. The first President of the then young nation was Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe while the first Prime Minister was Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. On January 15, 1966, some members of the Armed Forces of Nigeria toppled the Civilian Government in a miliary putsch.
include: the suspension of some portions of the Federal Constitution, the appointment of military governors for the four regions, and the initiation of the unitary system of government in Nigeria through the promulgation of Decree 34 of 1966. However, the military government of Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon which came into power in a counter coup of July 29, 1966, reinstated the federal structure of government by repealing Decree 34 of 1966. On May 27, 1967, Lt. Col. Gowon created 12 states from the former four regions, namely: Lagos, Mid-Western, East Central, Rivers, South Eastern, Benue-Plateau. North Eastern, North-Western, Kwara, Western, North Central and Kano.
Education is the greatest force that can be used to bring about change. It is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources.
It was in realisation of this that a National Policy on Education was formulated for the country. The policy seeks the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society; the training of the mind in understanding of the world around; and the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competence both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society.